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Ride of the Second Horseman

Ride of the Second Horseman PDF Author: Robert L. O'Connell
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019802293X
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 320

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Book Description
"Accurst be he that first invented war," wrote Christopher Marlowe--a declaration that most of us would take as a literary, not literal, construction. But in this sweeping overview of the rise of civilization, Robert O'Connell finds that war is indeed an invention--an institution that arose due to very specific historical circumstances, an institution that now verges on extinction. In Ride of the Second Horseman, O'Connell probes the distant human past to show how and why war arose. He begins with a definition that distinguishes between war and mere feuding: war involves group rather than individual issues, political or economic goals, and direction by some governmental structure, carried out with the intention of lasting results. With this definition, he finds that ants are the only other creatures that conduct it--battling other colonies for territory and slaves. But ants, unlike humans, are driven by their genes; in humans, changes in our culture and subsistence patterns, not our genetic hardware, brought the rise of organized warfare. O'Connell draws on anthropology and archeology to locate the rise of war sometime after the human transition from nomadic hunting and gathering to agriculture, when society split between farmers and pastoralists. Around 5500 BC, these pastoralists initiated the birth of war with raids on Middle Eastern agricultural settlements. The farmers responded by ringing their villages with walls, setting off a process of further social development, intensified combat, and ultimately the rise of complex urban societies dependent upon warfare to help stabilize what amounted to highly volatile population structures, beset by frequent bouts of famine and epidemic disease. In times of overpopulation, the armies either conquered new lands or self-destructed, leaving fewer mouths to feed. In times of underpopulation, slaves were taken to provide labor. O'Connell explores the histories of the civilizations of ancient Sumeria, Egypt, Assyria, China, and the New World, showing how war came to each and how it adapted to varying circumstances. On the other hand, societies based on trade employed war much more selectively and pragmatically. Thus, Minoan Crete, long protected from marauding pastoralists, developed a wealthy mercantile society marked by unmilitaristic attitudes, equality between men and women, and a relative absence of class distinctions. In Assyria, by contrast, war came to be an end in itself, in a culture dominated by male warriors. Despite the violence in the world today, O'Connell finds reason for hope. The industrial revolution broke the old patterns of subsistence: war no longer serves the demographic purpose it once did. Fascinating and provocative, Ride of the Second Horseman offers a far-reaching tour of human history that suggests the age-old cycle of war may now be near its end.

Ride of the Second Horseman

Ride of the Second Horseman PDF Author: Robert L. O'Connell
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019802293X
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 320

View

Book Description
"Accurst be he that first invented war," wrote Christopher Marlowe--a declaration that most of us would take as a literary, not literal, construction. But in this sweeping overview of the rise of civilization, Robert O'Connell finds that war is indeed an invention--an institution that arose due to very specific historical circumstances, an institution that now verges on extinction. In Ride of the Second Horseman, O'Connell probes the distant human past to show how and why war arose. He begins with a definition that distinguishes between war and mere feuding: war involves group rather than individual issues, political or economic goals, and direction by some governmental structure, carried out with the intention of lasting results. With this definition, he finds that ants are the only other creatures that conduct it--battling other colonies for territory and slaves. But ants, unlike humans, are driven by their genes; in humans, changes in our culture and subsistence patterns, not our genetic hardware, brought the rise of organized warfare. O'Connell draws on anthropology and archeology to locate the rise of war sometime after the human transition from nomadic hunting and gathering to agriculture, when society split between farmers and pastoralists. Around 5500 BC, these pastoralists initiated the birth of war with raids on Middle Eastern agricultural settlements. The farmers responded by ringing their villages with walls, setting off a process of further social development, intensified combat, and ultimately the rise of complex urban societies dependent upon warfare to help stabilize what amounted to highly volatile population structures, beset by frequent bouts of famine and epidemic disease. In times of overpopulation, the armies either conquered new lands or self-destructed, leaving fewer mouths to feed. In times of underpopulation, slaves were taken to provide labor. O'Connell explores the histories of the civilizations of ancient Sumeria, Egypt, Assyria, China, and the New World, showing how war came to each and how it adapted to varying circumstances. On the other hand, societies based on trade employed war much more selectively and pragmatically. Thus, Minoan Crete, long protected from marauding pastoralists, developed a wealthy mercantile society marked by unmilitaristic attitudes, equality between men and women, and a relative absence of class distinctions. In Assyria, by contrast, war came to be an end in itself, in a culture dominated by male warriors. Despite the violence in the world today, O'Connell finds reason for hope. The industrial revolution broke the old patterns of subsistence: war no longer serves the demographic purpose it once did. Fascinating and provocative, Ride of the Second Horseman offers a far-reaching tour of human history that suggests the age-old cycle of war may now be near its end.

National Security in the Information Age

National Security in the Information Age PDF Author: Emily O. Goldman
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135754624
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 256

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Book Description
As the activities of individuals, organizations, and nations increasingly occur in cyberspace, the security of those activities is becoming a growing concern. Political, economic and military leaders must manage and reduce the level of risk associated with threats from hostile states, malevolent nonstate actors such as organized terrorist groups or individual hackers, and high-tech accidents. The impact of the information technology revolution on warfare, global stability, governance, and even the meaning of existing security constructs like deterrence is significant. These essays examine the ways in which the information technology revolution has affected the logic of deterrence and crisis management, definitions of peace and war, democratic constraints on conflict, the conduct of and military organization for war, and the growing role of the private sector in providing security.

Second Horseman Out of Eden

Second Horseman Out of Eden PDF Author: George C. Chesbro
Publisher: Apache Beach Publications
ISBN: 9780967450346
Category : Fiction
Languages : en
Pages : 260

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Baily's Magazine of Sports and Pastimes

Baily's Magazine of Sports and Pastimes PDF Author: Tresham Gilbey
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Recreation
Languages : en
Pages : 470

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Baily's Magazine of Sports and Pastimes

Baily's Magazine of Sports and Pastimes PDF Author:
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Sports
Languages : en
Pages :

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Fields of Blood

Fields of Blood PDF Author: Karen Armstrong
Publisher: Knopf Canada
ISBN: 0307401987
Category : Religion
Languages : en
Pages : 432

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Book Description
From the renowned and bestselling author of A History of God, a sweeping exploration of religion's connection to violence. For the first time in American history, religious self-identification is on the decline. Some have cited a perception that began to grow after September 11: that faith in general is a source of aggression, intolerance and divisiveness--something bad for society. But how accurate is that view? And does it apply equally to all faiths? In these troubled times, we risk basing decisions of real and dangerous consequence on mistaken understandings of the faiths subscribed around us, in our immediate community as well as globally. And so, with her deep learning and sympathetic understanding, Karen Armstrong examines the impulse toward violence in each of the world's great religions. The comparative approach is new: while there have been plenty of books on jihad or the Crusades, this book lays the Christian and the Islamic way of war side by side, along with those of Buddhism, Hinduism, Confucianism, Daoism and Judaism. Each of these faiths arose in agrarian societies with plenty of motivation for violence: landowners had to lord it over peasants and warfare was essential to increase one's landholdings, the only real source of wealth before the great age of trade and commerce. In each context, it fell to the priestly class to legitimize the actions of the state. And so the martial ethos became bound up with the sacred. At the same time, however, their ideologies developed that ran counter to the warrior code: around sages, prophets and mystics. Within each tradition there grew up communities that represented a protest against the injustice and violence endemic to agrarian society. This book explores the symbiosis of these 2 impulses and its development as these confessional faiths came of age. The aggression of secularism has often damaged religion and pushed it into a violent mode. But modernity has also been spectacularly violent, and so Armstrong goes on to show how and in what measure religions, in their relative maturity, came to absorb modern belligerence--and what hope there might be for peace among believers in our time.

Baily's Magazine of Sports & Pastimes

Baily's Magazine of Sports & Pastimes PDF Author:
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 468

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The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse

The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse PDF Author: Gerald Flurry
Publisher: Philadelphia Church of God
ISBN:
Category : Religion
Languages : en
Pages : 63

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Book Description
We should already hear and intently fear the galloping hoofbeats of the four horsemen. They are racing toward us at this very moment. And here is the most terrifying truth of all: God’s own people are going to be devastated more than anyone else! In this booklet: • The White Horse • The Red Horse • The Black Horse • The Pale Horse This ebook is offered completely free of charge by the Philadelphia Church of God. However, please not that Google Play will need a verified Google Wallet account which requires your credit card information. In a small number of countries, a temporary authorization of $1 will be charged to your account but will be refunded. This refund can take up to 1 month to process.

World War III

World War III PDF Author: Gabriel Michaels
Publisher: Christian Faith Publishing, Inc.
ISBN: 1098041631
Category : Religion
Languages : en
Pages : 388

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Book Description
WW IIIThe mention of such an event brings fear and dread to the hearts of people the world over.The prophet Ezekiel and many other Bible prophets saw a great end-time war taking place.A war that would burn like a furnace upon the earth. A war that would trigger many otherend-time events. The Bible prophets of the Old and New Testaments and Jesus himself,speak together in harmony warning our generationof the approach of a nuclear fire war that will change the world forever!The drumbeat of the approach of WW IIIis growing louder day by day by day.Have you been thinking thatsomething just doesn't seem right about?What is happening in the world today? Thishard-hitting book answers many of thequestions that you may have about these daysin which you live. This planet seems to be on acollision course with disaster. Something is aboutto happen, something very terrible and somethingvery wonderful. Author Gabriel Michaels helps toexplain, in easy to understand language, what is comingupon this planet; and he shows how it may be muchsooner than you think!The book is not for the squeamish. It's the end-times on steroids.The future of our planet and the destiny of many nations, including the USA,hangs in the balance. Today the world teeters on the brink of the most destructive,world-changing war in history-WW III! Very few people realize the peril that they are inor that there is only one escape from what is coming. This book could be the final warningthat many people will receive. For the sake of you, your family, and your friends,you need to listen to this warning-a warning done out of love!“Insert Background Here”

The Select Journal of Foreign Periodical Literature

The Select Journal of Foreign Periodical Literature PDF Author:
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 520

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