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Lucius Verus and the Roman Defence of the East

Lucius Verus and the Roman Defence of the East PDF Author: M. C. Bishop
Publisher: Pen and Sword
ISBN: 1473849454
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 213

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Book Description
Lucius Verus is one of the least regarded Roman emperors, despite the fact that he was co-ruler with his adoptive brother Marcus Aurelius for nine years until his untimely death. The later sources were strangely hostile to him and modern writers tend to dismiss him, but contemporary writings shine a more favourable light on his accomplishments. His handling of military affairs, particularly the conflict with Parthia after their invasions of Armenia and Syria, deserves a new consideration in the light of a careful reassessment of all the available source material. This volume looks at the upbringing of the boy who lost two fathers, acquired a brother, had his name changed twice, became a general overnight, and commanded the army that defeated one of Romes greatest foes in the 2nd century AD. His rise to power is placed in the context of Romes campaigns in the East and the part played by all from the ordinary soldiers up to the aristocracy who commanded them in making Lucius Verus Parthian Wars a success.

Lucius Verus and the Roman Defence of the East

Lucius Verus and the Roman Defence of the East PDF Author: M. C. Bishop
Publisher: Pen and Sword
ISBN: 1473849454
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 213

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Book Description
Lucius Verus is one of the least regarded Roman emperors, despite the fact that he was co-ruler with his adoptive brother Marcus Aurelius for nine years until his untimely death. The later sources were strangely hostile to him and modern writers tend to dismiss him, but contemporary writings shine a more favourable light on his accomplishments. His handling of military affairs, particularly the conflict with Parthia after their invasions of Armenia and Syria, deserves a new consideration in the light of a careful reassessment of all the available source material. This volume looks at the upbringing of the boy who lost two fathers, acquired a brother, had his name changed twice, became a general overnight, and commanded the army that defeated one of Romes greatest foes in the 2nd century AD. His rise to power is placed in the context of Romes campaigns in the East and the part played by all from the ordinary soldiers up to the aristocracy who commanded them in making Lucius Verus Parthian Wars a success.

The Real Gladiator

The Real Gladiator PDF Author: Tony Sullivan
Publisher: Pen and Sword History
ISBN: 1399017586
Category : Biography & Autobiography
Languages : en
Pages : 208

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Book Description
“Are you not entertained?” shouts Russell Crowe, playing the part of General Maximus Decimus Meridius in the Oscar winning 2000 film Gladiator. The crowd, having witnessed Maximus defeating several gladiators, cheer in response. Film goers too were indeed entertained with the film grossing nearly half a billion dollars. This book covers the historical events that film was based on. From the Germanic wars on the northern frontier to the gladiatorial arena in Rome. From the philosopher emperor, Marcus Aurelius to the palace intrigues during the reign of his son. We will discover how Commodus really died and which of the characters actually fought in the arena. Readers will meet two generals, Pompeianus and Maximianus, who most resemble our hero General Maximus. Also Lucilla, the sister of Commodus, who in reality married her General, but detested him. The book also focuses on warfare, weapons and contemporary battles. It will compare the battle and fight scenes in the film with reality from contemporary sources and modern tests and reenactments. The reader will discover that fact is not only stranger than fiction, it is often more entertaining. The real history was certainly as much, if not more, treacherous, bloodthirsty, murderous and dramatic than anything the film industry has created. Anyone who answered “yes!” to the question posed by Russell Crowe’s character in the film, will indeed be entertained by this book.

The Reign of Emperor Antoninus Pius, AD 138–161

The Reign of Emperor Antoninus Pius, AD 138–161 PDF Author: John S McHugh
Publisher: Pen and Sword History
ISBN: 1526773996
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 333

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Book Description
The reign of Antoninus Pius is widely seen as the apogee of the Roman Empire yet, due to gaps in the historical sources, his reign has been overlooked by modern historians. He is considered one of the five good emperors of the Antonine dynasty under whom the pax Romana enabled the empire to prosper, trade to flourish and culture to thrive. His reign is considered a Golden Age but this was partly an image created by imperial propaganda. There were serious conflicts in North Africa and Dacia, as well as a major revolt in Britain. On his death the empire stood on the cusp of the catastrophic invasions and rebellions that marked the reign of his successor Marcus Aurelius. Antoninus Pius became emperor through the hand of fate, being adopted by Hadrian only after the death of his intended heir, Lucius Aelius Caesar. His rule was a balancing act between securing his own safety, securing the succession of his adopted heir and denying opportunities for conspiracy and rebellion. ‘Equanimity’ was the last password he issued to his guards as he lay on his death bed. In the face of the threats and challenges he remained calm and composed, providing twenty-three years of stability; a calm before the storms that gathered both within and beyond Rome’s borders.

Dariali: The 'Caspian Gates' in the Caucasus from Antiquity to the Age of the Huns and the Middle Ages

Dariali: The 'Caspian Gates' in the Caucasus from Antiquity to the Age of the Huns and the Middle Ages PDF Author: Eberhard Sauer
Publisher: Oxbow Books
ISBN: 1789251958
Category : Social Science
Languages : en
Pages : 1088

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Book Description
The Huns, invading through Dariali Gorge on the modern-day border between Russia and Georgia in AD 395 and 515, spread terror across the late antique world. Was this the prelude to the apocalypse? Prophecies foresaw a future Hunnic onslaught, via the same mountain pass, bringing about the end of the world. Humanity’s fate depended on a gated barrier deep in Europe’s highest and most forbidding mountain chain. Centuries before the emergence of such apocalyptic beliefs, the gorge had reached world fame. It was the target of a planned military expedition by the Emperor Nero. Chained to the dramatic sheer cliffs, framing the narrow passage, the mythical fire-thief Prometheus suffered severe punishment, his liver devoured by an eagle. It was known under multiple names, most commonly the Caspian or Alan Gates. Featuring in the works of literary giants, no other mountain pass in the ancient and medieval world matches Dariali’s fame. Yet little was known about the materiality of this mythical place. A team of archaeologists has now shed much new light on the major gorge-blocking fort and a barrier wall on a steep rocky ridge further north. The walls still standing today were built around the time of the first major Hunnic invasion in the late fourth century – when the Caucasus defences feature increasingly prominently in negotiations between the Great Powers of Persia and Rome. In its endeavour to strongly fortify the strategic mountain pass through the Central Caucasus, the workforce erased most traces of earlier occupation. The Persian-built bastion saw heavy occupation for 600 years. Its multi-faith medieval garrison controlled Trans-Caucasian traffic. Everyday objects and human remains reveal harsh living conditions and close connections to the Muslim South, as well as the steppe world of the north. The Caspian Gates explains how a highly strategic rock has played a pivotal role in world history from Classical Antiquity into the twentieth century.

The Imperial Families of Ancient Rome

The Imperial Families of Ancient Rome PDF Author: Maxwell Craven
Publisher: Fonthill Media
ISBN:
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 656

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Book Description
The Roman Empire was a spectacular polity of unprecedented scale which stretched from Scotland to Sudan and from Portugal to Persia. It survived for over 500 years in the west and 1,480 years in the east. Ruling it was a task of frightening complexity; few emperors made a good fist of it, yet thanks to dynastic connections, an efficient bureaucracy and a governing class eager to attain the kudos of holding the highest offices, it survived the mad, bad and incompetent emperors remarkably well. Although not always apparent, it was the interplay of emperors' kin and family connections which also made a major contribution to controlling the empire. This book aims to put on record the known ancestry, relations and descendants of all emperors, including ephemeral ones and show connections from one dynasty to another as completely as possible, accompanied by concise biographical notes about each ruler and known facts about family members, which include Romans both famous and obscure. It also attempts to distinguish between certainty and possibility and to eliminate obvious fiction. The introduction provides a narrative lead-in to the creation of the empire, attempts to clarify the complexities of Roman genealogy and assess the sources.

The Roman King Arthur?

The Roman King Arthur? PDF Author: Tony Sullivan
Publisher: Pen and Sword Military
ISBN: 1399084054
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 208

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Book Description
The 2004 film, King Arthur, starring Clive Owen and Keira Knightley, introduced the audience to Lucius Artorius Castus as the basis to the much later legend of King Arthur. The book analyses the theories behind the film which link this second to third century Roman officer with the medieval Arthurian legends and a possible historical figure in post-Roman Britain. This first full academic study of Artorius Castus offers a number of potential timeframes and details his career through a turbulent and bloody period of Roman history, serving as primus pilus of V Macedonia and praefectus of the Sixth Legion in northern Britain. Turning to the historical narrative of the film it covers the archaeological and literary evidence for the break down of Roman Britain, arrival of Germanic peoples and emergence of petty kingdoms and new cultural identities. The penultimate chapter lays out the evidence for and against a historical Arthur, offering suggestions as to his identity, location of his battles and the possible political, military, social and cultural situation he lived and fought in. This is an entertaining and informative picture of two fascinating figures, one firmly historical, the other shrouded in myth and legend. The book leaves the reader with a clear picture of the lives of a Roman career officer and later dark-age warrior and the different worlds in which they lived. Anyone interested in the Roman period, post-Roman Britain and the possibilities for a historical Arthur should enjoy this book. “A fascinating investigation into the historical figure of Lucius Artorius Castus, camp prefect of VI Victrix based at Eboracum, York”. Dave Grainger, Legio VI Victrix, re-enactment group, York. “A welcome addition to modern discussions the roman army officer Lucius Artorius Castus which seeks to place him within an appropriate timescale and very properly disputes the links that have been suggested between this ‘real’ Roman army officer and the later and very much more fictional king Arthur”. Professor Nick Higham, historian and author

Mesopotamia & Arabia

Mesopotamia & Arabia PDF Author: Lee Fratantuono
Publisher: Pen and Sword Military
ISBN: 1473883296
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 192

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Book Description
This volume explores the Roman invasions and military operations in two distinct yet related areas: Mesopotamia and Arabia. In these far-flung regions of the ancient known world, Rome achieved the greatest point of expansion in the history of her Empire. Under the reign of the Emperor Trajan, the Roman Empire reached the point of maximum expansion made famous by maps of the world circa AD 120. Under the Severans, significant efforts were expended on a Roman dream of linking the two regions into one mighty provincial bulwark against Eastern enemies. Individual chapters detail the history of the conquest of these easternmost territories of the Empire, analyzing the opposing armies involved (Roman, Parthian, Sassanian, Arab) and the reasons for success and failure. The story of how Rome won and lost her Far East offers a paradigm for the rise and fall of the greatest military empire of the ancient world.

Reign of Arrows

Reign of Arrows PDF Author: Nikolaus Leo Overtoom
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190888342
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 397

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Book Description
From its origins as a minor nomadic tribe to its status as a major world empire, the rise of the Parthian state in the ancient world is nothing short of remarkable. In their early history, the Parthians benefitted from strong leadership, a flexible and accommodating cultural identity, and innovative military characteristics that allowed them to compete against and even overcome Greek, Persian, Central Asian, and eventually Roman rivals. Reign of Arrows provides the first comprehensive study, in almost a century, dedicated entirely to early Parthian history. Assimilating a wide array of especially recent scholarship across numerous fields of study, Nikolaus Overtoom presents the most cogent, well rounded, and up-to-date account of the Parthian empire in its wider context of Hellenistic history. It explains the political and military encounters that shaped the international environment of the Hellenistic Middle East from the middle third to the early first centuries BCE. This study combines traditional historical approaches, such as source criticism and the integration of material evidence, with the incorporation of modern international relations theory to better examine the emergence and expansion of Parthian power. Relevant to historians, classicists, political scientists, and general readers interested in the ancient world and military history, Reign of Arrows reimagines and reconstructs the rise of the Parthians within the hotly contested and dangerously competitive international environment of the Hellenistic world.

Romans at War

Romans at War PDF Author: Simon Elliott
Publisher: Casemate
ISBN: 1612008860
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 302

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Book Description
A comprehensive guide to this remarkable ancient fighting force: “Groundbreaking insights into the Roman military . . . sumptuously illustrated.” —Love Reading The Roman military machine was pre-eminent in ancient times, projecting power across the known world over a vast chronology, and an increasingly huge and diverse geography. One of the most powerful instruments of war in the history of conflict, it proved uniquely adept at learning from setbacks, always coming back the stronger for it. In so doing, it displayed two of the most important traits associated with the world of Rome. Firstly grit, that key ability to remain steadfast and to overcome adversity even in the most challenging of circumstances, as faced for example by the Republic in the Second Punic War against Hannibal. Secondly, the ability to copy the successful technical and tactical innovations of their enemies, enabling the Roman military to always stay one step ahead of its opponents on campaign and in battle. In this grand tour, covering every aspect of the Roman military, leading expert Dr. Simon Elliott first provides a detailed background to the Roman Republic and Empire to provide context for all that follows. He then looks specifically at the Roman military in its three key chronological phases: the Republic, the Principate Empire, and the Dominate Empire. Next he forensically examines specific instances of the Roman military on campaign and in battle, and of its engineering prowess. Finally, he investigates the many enemies faced by the Roman Republic and Empire. This all provides a firm structure to enable the reader to come to grips with this incredible military machine, one whose exploits still resonate in the world to this very day.

Roman Britain's Pirate King

Roman Britain's Pirate King PDF Author: Simon Elliott
Publisher: Pen and Sword Military
ISBN: 1399094394
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 208

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Book Description
In the mid-3rd century AD Roman Britain’s regional fleet, the Classis Britannica, disappeared. It was never to return. Soon the North Sea and English Channel were over-run by Germanic pirates preying upon the east and south coast of Britain, and the continental coast up to the Rhine Delta. The western augustus (senior emperor) Maximian turned to a seasoned naval leader called Marcus Aurelius Mausaeus Valerius Carausius to restore order. He was so successful that Maximian accused him of pocketing the plunder he’d recaptured, ordering his execution. The canny Carausius moved first and in 286 usurped imperial authority, creating a North Sea empire in northern Gaul and Britain which lasted until 296. Dubbed the pirate king, he initially thrived, seeing off early attempts by Maximian to defeat him. However, in the early 290s Maximian appointed his new caesar (junior emperor), Constantius Chlorus (the father of Constantine the Great), to defeat Carausius. A seasoned commander, Constantius Chlorus soon brought northern Gaul back into the imperial fold, leaving Carausius controlling only Britain. Carausius was then assassinated and replaced by Allectus, his treasurer. Allectus was in turn defeated by Constantius Chlorus in AD 296 in the fourth Roman invasion of Britain, the caesar arriving just in time to prevent London being sacked by Allectus’ Frankish mercenaries. Once more Britain was part of the Roman Empire.