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Implications of Integrating Women into the Marine Corps Infantry

Implications of Integrating Women into the Marine Corps Infantry PDF Author: Agnes Gereben Schaefer
Publisher: Rand Corporation
ISBN: 0833092642
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 214

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Book Description
This study for the U.S. Marine Corps presents a historical overview of the integration of women into the U.S. military and explores the importance of cohesion and what influences it. The gender integration experiences of foreign militaries, as well as the gender integration efforts of domestic police and fire departments, are analyzed for insights into effective policies. The potential costs of integration are analyzed as well.

Implications of Integrating Women into the Marine Corps Infantry

Implications of Integrating Women into the Marine Corps Infantry PDF Author: Agnes Gereben Schaefer
Publisher: Rand Corporation
ISBN: 0833092642
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 214

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Book Description
This study for the U.S. Marine Corps presents a historical overview of the integration of women into the U.S. military and explores the importance of cohesion and what influences it. The gender integration experiences of foreign militaries, as well as the gender integration efforts of domestic police and fire departments, are analyzed for insights into effective policies. The potential costs of integration are analyzed as well.

Implications of Integrating Women Into the Marine Corps Infantry

Implications of Integrating Women Into the Marine Corps Infantry PDF Author: Agnes Gereben Schaefer
Publisher: Rand Corporation
ISBN: 0833092030
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 214

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Book Description
This study for the U.S. Marine Corps reviews the history of the integration of women into the U.S. military and explores the role of cohesion, the gender integration of foreign militaries and domestic police and fire departments, and potential costs.

Rushing to Failure?

Rushing to Failure? PDF Author: Denise M. Mull
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Organizational effectiveness
Languages : en
Pages : 31

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Book Description
"Profoundly influenced by two post-9/11 protracted wars which highlighted the expanded role of women in combat, civilian leaders have pursued a gender-neutral military. The premise is women are not only qualified but bring a wealth of diverse talents that should be applied across all disciplines within the Armed Forces and, as true equals, women should be afforded the opportunity to ascend to more senior ranks in greater numbers. However, policy makers appear to have overlooked decades of medical research and evidence that strongly counter this seemingly straight forward logic. Arguably, integrating women in the Marine Corps' infantry will degrade readiness, deplete a talented pool of women from the total force, and erode combat effectiveness. Physiological differences affect attrition and readiness when exposing women to training that accentuates the disparities between genders. Given the Marine Corps' distinct approach to its mission, and comparatively small size, it already has the lowest percentage of women across all the services. As such, the Marine Corps' methodology of training its force, coupled with the physical demands of the direct ground combat arms specialties, will lead to a talent management issue. The potential outcome is a further reduction in the number of women in the service resulting in a less integrated and less diverse force. Ramifications of failure include high attrition, which will ultimately drive the redress of standards to correct discrepancies and disparities between genders, thereby degrading combat effectiveness. As an alternative, Congress should enact law prohibiting women from integration into direct ground combat arms specialties and allow military leaders to channel resources for recruiting and retaining women in the roles where they are best-qualified and fully capable of performing"--Abstract.

Assessing the Implications of Allowing Transgender Personnel to Serve Openly

Assessing the Implications of Allowing Transgender Personnel to Serve Openly PDF Author: Agnes Gereben Schaefer
Publisher: Rand Corporation
ISBN: 0833094378
Category : Social Science
Languages : en
Pages : 112

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Book Description
The U.S. Department of Defense is considering a change in policy to allow transgender military personnel to serve openly. A RAND study examined the health care needs of transgender personnel, the costs of gender transition–related care, and the potential readiness implications of a policy change. The experiences of foreign militaries that permit transgender service members to serve openly also point to some best practices for U.S. policymakers.

Women and the Military: Global Lives in Focus

Women and the Military: Global Lives in Focus PDF Author: Ruth Margolies Beitler
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 1440860238
Category : Social Science
Languages : en
Pages : 286

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Book Description
This addition to the Women and Society around the World series explores the roles, challenges, and accomplishments of women in the military in countries across the globe. Around the world, millions of men serve in their countries' militaries, be it on land, on the seas, or in the air. But while many militaries have opened all positions to women, even those on the front lines, others remain closed. Countries have cited a number of reasons for their policies, changing views of women and the military, conscription, economic, and demographic trends. Written by a professor of comparative politics at the United States Military Academy at West Point and an active duty army major, this book seeks to provide an understanding of women's roles in militaries around the world. The book is organized by region, exploring societal and cultural views of masculinity and war, as well as factors influencing changing views of women and the military, including conscription, economic, and demographic trends. Topics also include sexual harassment, recruitment, and views on women's physicality and strength. High school students, undergraduates, and general readers will find this cross-cultural study a fascinating and important resource. Provides readers with an overview of women's role in militaries across the globe Explores the integration of women into the combat arms in several countries Provides historical background on the topic of women and the military in order to help readers better understand circumstances today Offers interesting and insightful information in sidebars placed throughout the text to make the reader's experience more enriching Provides readers with at-a-glance information of the history of women and the military around the world in a chronology Illustrates and supports the text in photographs

Women and Politics

Women and Politics PDF Author: Lynne Ford
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 042998264X
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 466

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Book Description
Women and Politics is a comprehensive examination of women's use of politics in pursuit of gender equality. How can demands for gender equality be reconciled with sex differences? Resolving this paradoxical question has proceeded along two paths: the legal equality doctrine, which emphasizes gender neutrality, and the fairness doctrine, which recognizes differences between men and women. The text's clear analysis and presentation of theory and history helps students to think critically about the difficulties faced by women in politics, and about how public policies in education, labour and the economy, and family and fertility, impact gender equality. The fully-revised fourth edition explores new critical perspectives, recent political events, and current challenges to gender equality, including the 2016 presidential election and Hillary Clinton's candidacy, the fight for equal pay and paid leave, and the debate over reproductive rights and campus sexual assault. It also includes current scholarship on the intersections of race, class, and gender, and expanded coverage of minority women, women in the military, and conservative women. This text, and its two-path framework, is essential to understanding women's pursuit of equality via the political system.

Altering the Gender Composition in the Marine Corps: Recruiting and Readiness Implications - Pregnancy Impact on Availability of Women in the Military

Altering the Gender Composition in the Marine Corps: Recruiting and Readiness Implications - Pregnancy Impact on Availability of Women in the Military PDF Author: U. S. Military
Publisher: Independently Published
ISBN: 9781719958899
Category : Social Science
Languages : en
Pages : 70

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Book Description
As of January 2016, all military occupations opened to women across all branches of military service. The opening of previously closed occupations to women has initiated conversations regarding how the quality of the force may be affected by the integration. This study explores the implications of altering the gender composition in the Marine Corps on recruiting and readiness. To address recruiting implications, we examine the differences in the predicted probabilities of the average male and female civilian graduating from the Infantry Training Battalion. We find that the average male civilian is 5.2 times more likely to graduate from the Infantry Training Battalion than the average female civilian. To address readiness implications, we examine the differences in average availability between males and females during their first term of service, and we also analyze the differences between availability in females across different occupational fields. We find that on average, females are less deployable than males during the first four years of service, with the differences peaking during months 25-36, with the major cause of a female's unavailability being pregnancy. We further find that the density of females does not have a significant effect on the overall readiness of the female population. I. Introduction * A. All Military Occupations Open To Women * B. Answering The Impossible Question * C. Research Objective * D. Organization Of Study * II. Literature Review * A. Women In The Labor Market * 1. Population Fit For Service * 2. Diversity In Teams * 3. Compensation Differentials * 4. Quota-Based Policies * B. Economic Models * 1. The Production Function * 2. Roy Model * III. Data And Methodology * A. Street To Fleet * 1. ITB-West * 2. NCHS / California Department Of Education * B. In The Fleet * IV. Results * A. Recruiting Implications * B. Readiness Implications * 1. Availability Differences Between Females And Males * 2. Unavailability Breakdown * 3. Readiness Across Occupational Fields * V. Conclusion * A. Recruiting Implications * B. Readiness Implications * C. Recommendations * D. Future Studies

Complete Guide to Women in Military Combat

Complete Guide to Women in Military Combat PDF Author: U. S. Congress
Publisher:
ISBN: 9781973205708
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 154

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Book Description
This unique book reproduces a number of military reports and government documents about the issue of women serving in combat. Contents include: Implementation of the Decision to Open All Ground Combat Units to Women * Women In Combat * Women in Combat: Issues for Congress * Women In Combat: A Culture Issue? * Army Plans for Integrating Women into Combat * Women in Combat Compendium * Chapter I - USAWC Women in Combat Survey Interpretation * Chapter II - The DoD Combat Exclusion Policy: Time for a Change? * Chapter III - The Combat Exclusion Policy in the Modern Security Environment * Chapter IV - Impact of Revising the Army's Female Assignment Policy * Chapter V - Women Leaders In Combat: One Commander's Perspective * Chapter VI - Leading Soldiers on Today's Battlefield: Considerations on Contributions and Challenges of the Integration and Role of Soldiers Who Are Women * Chapter VII - The 95th Military Police Battalion Deployment to Iraq-Operation Iraqi Freedom II * Chapter VIII - How the Army Can Meet the Intent of Policy and Statute On Ground Combat Exclusion for Women. Included are hearings in early 2016 regarding the implementation of the decision to integrate women into combat occupations and the ground combat forces in particular. Testimony by Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus stated: The Marine Corps is the most formidable expeditionary fighting force the world has ever known. That legacy is proven through the Corps' storied history, from the halls of Montezuma to the Valleys of Afghanistan, and that reputation is unquestioned in America and around the globe: No better friend, no worse enemy. The strong traditions of the Marines help make that reputation, and among those traditions is a commitment to evolve, to be flexible, - in one of the common instructions to young Marines - to improvise, adapt and overcome. Throughout its history, the Corps has maintained its combat power and its lethality by adapting to changing conditions, evolving training and tactics to meet new challenges and new threats. Today's School of Infantry is not the same as it was just 25 years ago during Desert Storm, and the change is even more dramatic since Vietnam or World War II. In a world where the threats and the battle space are all increasingly complex, failing to re-evaluate everything from personnel policies to weapons programs can be dangerous if not fatal. A response of "that's the way we've always done it," is not, cannot be, and never has been, an acceptable rationale. In the Department of the Navy, we are continually evaluating the way we operate. After Secretary Panetta and Chairman Dempsey set us in 2012 on the path toward opening all billets, including ground combat, to women by this year, the Navy and Marine Corps - along with our sister services - conducted extensive studies on that issue. These studies helped inform the Department's recommendation to Secretary of Defense Carter and his subsequent decision to open all previously closed positions in all services to women. But they were not the only source of information that was gathered in reaching that recommendation. However, the Marine Corps study has drawn special attention, and at least some of what has made it into public discussion is - to put it generously - less than accurate. Among the misperceptions is that the Marines relied on just one study. In fact, their conclusions were, in part, based on a number of studies and reports. I have spent a considerable amount of time closely reviewing all of them, especially the Marines' own study. In addition, I've had numerous discussions with senior Marine leadership, junior officers, and enlisted personnel.

Fight Like a Girl

Fight Like a Girl PDF Author: Kate Germano
Publisher: Prometheus Books
ISBN: 1633884139
Category : Sexism
Languages : en
Pages : 304

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Book Description
One woman's professional battle against systemic gender bias in the Marines and the lessons it holds for all of us. The Marine Corps continues to be the only service where men and women train separately in boot camp or basic training. This segregation negatively affects interaction with male marines later on, and, lower expectations of female recruits are actively maintained and encouraged. But Lieutenant Colonel Kate Germano arrived at the Fourth Recruit Training Battalion at Parris Island--which exclusively trains female recruits--convinced that if she expected more of the women just coming into Corps, she could raise historically low standards for female performance and make women better Marines. And, after one year, shooting qualifications of the women under her command equaled those of men, injuries had decreased, and unit morale had noticeably improved. Then the Marines fired her. This is the story of Germano's struggle to achieve equality of performance and opportunity for female Marines against an entrenched male-dominated status quo. It is also a universal tale of the effects of systemic gender bias. Germano charges that the men above her in the chain of command were too invested in perpetuating the subordinate role of women in the Corps to allow her to prove that the female Marine can be equal to her male counterpart. She notes that the Marine Corps' $35-million gender-integration study, which shows that all-male squads perform at a higher level than mixed male-female squads, flies in the face of the results she demonstrated with the all-female Fourth Battalion and raises questions about the Marine Corps' willingness to let women succeed. At a time when women are fighting sexism and systemic bias in many sectors of society, Germano's experience has wide-ranging implications and lessons--not just for the military but also for corporate America, the labor force, education, and government.

Women Veterans

Women Veterans PDF Author: G.L.A. Harris
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351201131
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 458

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Book Description
Women who fight in wars also have to fight for their right to do so. But what are the obstacles impeding their progress in achieving equal status as both active service members and as veterans? This book, written by a team of female veterans and military scholars, demonstrates the ways in which women service members and veterans experience a unique set of challenges when attempting to both honorably serve their country and reintegrate into civilian society following military service. These challenges include – but are not limited to – discrimination, staggering rates of suicide, and barriers to obtaining treatment for military sexual trauma and other critical benefits through the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. Women Veterans: Lifting the Veil of Invisibility examines current service-related policies and gender in the military’s hierarchical power structure. Here, a confluence of white male privilege and entitlement, the culture of domination, and the effeminization of the enemy manifest themselves as a backlash against women, calling into question a woman’s agency and her very status as a citizen. Special attention in the book is paid to the civil-military divide, representative bureaucracy, and the function of the military and civilian justice systems. Moreover, the need for appropriate healthcare policies and structures is examined within a ‘wicked problems’ framework. The authors conclude that the responsibility for women veterans, and all veterans for that matter, must become a matter of compelling government interest. This ground-breaking book is required reading for practitioners of public policy and administration with an interest in military and veterans affairs, public health, NGOs and activist groups, as well as scholars of gender and public service, public personnel management, and nonprofit management.