Long-term Effects of Elevated Carbon Dioxide Concentration on Sour Orange Wood Specific Gravity, Modulus of Elasticity, and Microfibril Angle PDF Download

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Long-term Effects of Elevated Carbon Dioxide Concentration on Sour Orange Wood Specific Gravity, Modulus of Elasticity, and Microfibril Angle

Long-term Effects of Elevated Carbon Dioxide Concentration on Sour Orange Wood Specific Gravity, Modulus of Elasticity, and Microfibril Angle PDF Author:
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Atmospheric carbon dioxide
Languages : en
Pages : 9

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Book Description
The carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration of Earth's atmosphere continues to rise. Plants in general are responsive to changing CO2 concentrations, which suggests changes in agricultural productivity in the United States and around the world. The ability of plants to absorb CO2 during photosynthesis and then store carbon in their structure or sequester it in the soil has potential for mitigating the rate of rise of atmospheric CO2 concentration. Since 1987, Bruce Kimball and coworkers at the USDA Agricultural Research Service in Phoenix, Arizona, have maintained a greenhouse gas experiment using sour orange trees maintained in a CO2- enriched environment. These trees were harvested in 2005. During the final massive harvest, many different properties and characteristics of the woody biomass for these sour orange trees were studied. This report focuses only on the mechanical property evaluation of modulus of elasticity (MOE), specific gravity, and microfibril angle. In this study of CO2-exposed sour orange trees, CO2 did not significantly affect specific gravity of sour orange trees. Exposure to CO2 did not significantly affect MOE of sour orange trees. Exposure to CO2 did, however, seem to influence microfibril angle development. Minor interactions between CO2 and cardinal direction affected the MOE and were caused by experimental difference in chamber construction.

Potato Response to Elevated Carbon Dioxide and Temperature

Potato Response to Elevated Carbon Dioxide and Temperature PDF Author: Chien-Teh Chen
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 438

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Book Description
Global climate change is predicted to elevate atmospheric CO2 concentration, while increasing the frequency of high temperature episodes. To provide an improved understanding of crop response to these climates and of the underlying processes by which crops adjust their growth rates, potato (Solanum tuberosum, L.) was subjected to CO2, light and temperature treatments. Atmospheric CO2 treatments (700 or 350 mumol/mol) were imposed at stages: pre-tuber initiation (PTI), tuber initiation (TI), and tuber bulking (TB). Elevated CO2 increased the rate of plant total dry mass accumulation about 40% at each of the stages, but it did not increase tuber number and it enhanced tuber growth only when the CO2 treatment was imposed during concomitant tuber growth. Elevated CO2 increased tuber cell production 58% and 35% at TI and TB, respectively. Cell expansion was increased 10% at TB but decreased 30% at TI. Tuber cell endoreduplication, which reached 32C, was not increased. Elevated CO2 increased glucose concentration and soluble-invertase activity in the cambial-zones at both TI and TB, while sucrose concentration and most other enzyme activities, glucokinase, fructokinase, cell-wall-bound-invertase and thymidine kinase, were unaffected. Under shade treatment, elevated CO 2 was without effect. Shade decreased tuber production mainly due to decreased tuber size, and that due to decreased cell production. Shade altered several tuber properties in the reverse direction compared to those for elevated CO2. Shade decreased cambial-zone tuber glucose levels and soluble-invertase activity. In comparison with normal temperature (25/18°C, day/night), high temperature (35/25°C) decreased whole-plant growth, while percentage enhancement by elevated CO2 was considerably greater at high temperature than at normal temperature. High temperature had a greater inhibitory effect on tuber growth at TI than TB, and this correlated with the inhibition of tuber cell production. At TI high temperature increased sucrose level in tuber cambial-zone. High temperature did not affect activities of sugar metabolic enzymes and thymidine kinase. This work showed that modulation of tuber cell division was responsible for much of the growth response to climate variables and that treatment effects were best correlated with cambial-zone glucose and soluble-invertase, suggesting involvement of glucose signaling pathway.

Long-term Effects of Elevated Carbon Dioxide Concentration on Sour Orange Wood Specific Gravity, Modulus of Elasticity, and Microfibril Angle

Long-term Effects of Elevated Carbon Dioxide Concentration on Sour Orange Wood Specific Gravity, Modulus of Elasticity, and Microfibril Angle PDF Author:
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Atmospheric carbon dioxide
Languages : en
Pages : 9

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Book Description
The carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration of Earth's atmosphere continues to rise. Plants in general are responsive to changing CO2 concentrations, which suggests changes in agricultural productivity in the United States and around the world. The ability of plants to absorb CO2 during photosynthesis and then store carbon in their structure or sequester it in the soil has potential for mitigating the rate of rise of atmospheric CO2 concentration. Since 1987, Bruce Kimball and coworkers at the USDA Agricultural Research Service in Phoenix, Arizona, have maintained a greenhouse gas experiment using sour orange trees maintained in a CO2- enriched environment. These trees were harvested in 2005. During the final massive harvest, many different properties and characteristics of the woody biomass for these sour orange trees were studied. This report focuses only on the mechanical property evaluation of modulus of elasticity (MOE), specific gravity, and microfibril angle. In this study of CO2-exposed sour orange trees, CO2 did not significantly affect specific gravity of sour orange trees. Exposure to CO2 did not significantly affect MOE of sour orange trees. Exposure to CO2 did, however, seem to influence microfibril angle development. Minor interactions between CO2 and cardinal direction affected the MOE and were caused by experimental difference in chamber construction.

Carbon Dioxide and Environmental Stress

Carbon Dioxide and Environmental Stress PDF Author: Luo Yiqi
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780124603707
Category : Nature
Languages : en
Pages : 418

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Book Description
Interactions of CO2 with Water, Temperature, Salinity, UV-B, Ozone, and Nutrients: -- T.C. Hsiao and R.B. Jackson, Interactive Effects of Water Stress and Elevated CO2 on Growth, Photosynthesis, and Water Use Efficiency. -- J.S. Amthor, Increasing Atmospheric CO2 Concentration, Water Use, and Water Stress: Scaling Up from the Plant to the Landscape. -- R.M.M. Crawford and D.W. Wolfe, Temperature: Cellular to Whole Plant and Population Responses. -- S.D. Smith, D.N. Jordan, and E.P. Hamerlynck, Effects of Elevated CO2 and Temperature Stress on Ecosystem Processes. -- R.E. Munns, G.R. Cramer, and M.C. Ball, Interactions Between Rising CO2, Soil Salinity, and Plant Growth. -- J. Rozema, A.H. Teramura, and M.M. Caldwell, Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment and Enhanced Solar Ultraviolet-B Radiation: Gene to Ecosystem Responses. -- A. Polle and E.J. Pell, The Role of Carbon Dioxide in Modifying the Plant Response to Ozone. -- H.H. Rogers, G.B. Runion, S.A. Prior, and H.A. Torbert, Response of Plants ...

Carbon Dioxide, Populations, and Communities

Carbon Dioxide, Populations, and Communities PDF Author: Fakhri A. Bazzaz
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080500722
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 465

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Book Description
In past decades and in association with a continuing global industrial development, the global atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide has been rising. Among the many predictions made concerning this disturbing trend is global warming sufficient to melt polar ice-caps thereby dramatically altering existing shorelines. This book will help fill an obvious gap in the carbon dioxide debate by substituting date for speculation. * * Includes contributions from leading authorities around the world * Serves as a companion to Carbon Dioxide and Terrestrial Ecosystems * The first book of its kind to explore evolutionary responses of both populations and communities to elevated carbon dioxide

Long-term Effects of Elevated Carbon Dioxide Concentration on Sour Orange Tree Specific Gravity and Anatomy

Long-term Effects of Elevated Carbon Dioxide Concentration on Sour Orange Tree Specific Gravity and Anatomy PDF Author: Michael Carl Wiemann
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Atmospheric carbon dioxide
Languages : en
Pages : 5

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Book Description
Exposure to elevated levels of atmospheric CO2 for a period of 17 years resulted in small but statistically significant decreases in wood basic specific gravity and number of rays per millimeter. Other anatomical characteristics (percentages of tissues, number of vessels per square millimeter, vessel diameters, and fiber wall thickness) were unaffected by treatment. Differences due to distance from pith were important, but cardinal direction (north, south, east, west) was not.

CO2, Temperature, and Trees

CO2, Temperature, and Trees PDF Author: Dieter Overdieck
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 981101860X
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 240

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Book Description
This comprehensive book discusses the ecophysiological features of trees affected by the two most prominent factors of climate change: atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature. It starts with the introduction of experimental methods at the leaf, branch, the whole-tree, and tree group scales, and in the following chapters elaborates on specific topics including photosynthesis of leaves, respiration of plant organs, water use efficiency, the production of and/or distribution patterns of carbohydrates, secondary metabolites, and nutrients, anatomy of cells and tissues, height and stem-diameter growth, biomass accumulation, leaf phenology and longevity, and model ecosystems (soil-litter-plant enclosures). The current knowledge is neatly summarized, and the author presents valuable data derived from his 30 years of experimental research, some of which is published here for the first time. Using numerous examples the book answers the fundamental questions such as: What are the interactions of elevated CO2 concentration and temperature on tree growth and matter partitioning? How do different tree groups react? Are there any effects on organisms living together with trees? What kinds of models can be used to interpret the results from experiments on trees? This volume is highly recommended for researchers, postdocs, and graduate students in the relevant fields. It is also a valuable resource for undergraduate students, decision-makers in the fields of forest management and environmental protection, and any other scientists who are interested in the effect of global change on ecosystems.

The Productivity and Sustainability of Southern Forest Ecosystems in a Changing Environment

The Productivity and Sustainability of Southern Forest Ecosystems in a Changing Environment PDF Author: Robert Mickler
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461221781
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 892

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Book Description
The research presented here provides a sound scientific basis for management and policy decisions regarding the productivity and sustainability of forest ecosystems in the context of a rapidly changing global environment. It is the synthesis of 5 years of field and laboratory research on southern forests conducted by the US Department of Agriculture Forest Service to provide scientific assessments to the US Global Change Research Program, and, as such, is invaluable for policy makers and land use managers.

Elevated Carbon Dioxide

Elevated Carbon Dioxide PDF Author: M.B. Kirkham
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781439855058
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 415

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Book Description
Between 1958 and 2008, the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere increased from 316 to 385 ppm. Continued increases in CO2 concentration will significantly affect long-term climate change, including variations in agricultural yields. Focusing on this critical issue, Elevated Carbon Dioxide: Impacts on Soil and Plant Water Relations presents research conducted on field-grown sorghum, winter wheat, and rangeland plants under elevated CO2. It describes specific results from pioneering experiments performed over a seven-year period in the Evapotranspiration Laboratory at Kansas State University, along with experiments appearing in peer-reviewed journal articles. Select articles from the literature serve as examples in the text. For each paper discussed, the author includes the common and scientific name of the plant under investigation. For each experiment, the author provides the type of soil used (if given in the original article) and general conditions of the experiment. All references are carefully documented so that readers can easily find the original source. The first chapter of the book deals with drought, the three types of photosynthesis, and how water moves through the soil–plant–atmosphere continuum. With a focus on soil, the next several chapters discuss the composition of the soil atmosphere, the interaction of elevated CO2 with physical factors that affect root growth, variable oxygen concentration of soil, and when the atmosphere above soil is elevated with CO2. The author goes on to examine the use of carbon isotope ratios in plant science; the effects of elevated CO2 on plant water, osmotic, and turgor potentials; and stomata under elevated CO2, including stomatal conductance and density. The text also explains the effects of elevated CO2 on transpiration and evapotranspiration, explores historical aspects of water use efficiency, compares C3 and C4 plants under elevated CO2, and details the advantages of C4 photosynthesis. The concluding chapters cover plant anatomy, the effects of elevated CO2 on phenology, and measures of plant growth. How have plants responded to increased levels of atmospheric CO2? Are some plants reacting better than others? Drawing on a host of scientific studies, this text explores how rising levels of CO2 in the atmosphere have impacted water in plants and soils.

Interactive Effects of Elevated Carbon Dioxide Concentration with Nutrient Availability and Leaf Development on Plant Carbon Metabolism

Interactive Effects of Elevated Carbon Dioxide Concentration with Nutrient Availability and Leaf Development on Plant Carbon Metabolism PDF Author:
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :

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Book Description


Carbon Dioxide

Carbon Dioxide PDF Author:
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128176105
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 430

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Book Description
Carbon Dioxide, Volume 37 in the Fish Physiology series highlights new advances in the field, with this new volume presenting interesting chapters on a variety of topics, including Historic, current-day and future CO2 environments and their dynamics in marine and freshwater ecosystems, CO2 sensing, Acid-base physiology and CO2 homeostasis: regulation and compensation, CO2 and calcification processes in fish, The physiology of behavioral impacts of high CO2, Effects of high CO2 on metabolic rates, aerobic scope and swimming performance, Internal spatial and temporal CO2 effects: feeding and alkaline tide, O2 in aquaculture: CO2 dynamics and fish health, and much more. Provides the authority and expertise of leading contributors from an international board of authors Presents the latest release in the Fish Physiology series Updated release includes the latest information on Carbon Dioxide